Scrap Rubber Recycling|compound formulations In addition to one or more base polymers, typical rubber compounds contain a number of additional ingredients to modify their performance and cost. These formulations usually evolve over time and may contain between 10 and 50 separate ingredients. The formulations are usually kept secret within an organisation and are often the key differentiator between competing products. 




The typical ingredients in a formulation include: 

Raw polymer

synthetic or natural rubber

20% to 70% of compound


carbon black (a wide variety of carbon blacks are available, each imparting specific properties to the compound), silicas, clays, etc

could be up to 80% of compound


wide range of pigments available for non carbon black applications

up to 20%

Anti-degradants (to protect from UV, ozone, etc)

e.g. amines, phenolics, peroxides

up to 10%

Process aids

e.g. oils, resins, soaps, blowing agents 

up to 10%

Cure system

curing agents (e.g. sulphur, peroxide)
accelerators and retardants (e.g. dithiocarbamates, thiurams, thiazoles, sulphenamides, CBS, MBS, MBT, zinc oxide)

typically 1% to 5%

Note: the percentages of materials used are only provided as an indication of relative ranges. Real formulations may vary from these ranges.

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